Clinical Trial Results

Advanced Melanoma or Adjuvant Therapy for Melanoma

Adjuvant Therapy for Stage IIB, Stage IIC, or Stage III Melanoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult and pediatric (12 years and older) patients with stage IIB, IIC, or III melanoma following complete resection.

The first anti–PD⁠-⁠1 adjuvant therapy approved for completely resected stage IIB and stage IIC melanoma.1

Clinical Findings from KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 (Stage IIB/IIC)

Significant Improvement in Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) Demonstrated With KEYTRUDA vs Placebo


For adjuvant treatment in patients (12 years and older) with completely resected stage IIB or stage IIC melanoma

35%

Reduction in the risk of disease recurrence or death with KEYTRUDA compared with placebo

HR=0.65 (95% CI, 0.46–0.92; P=0.0132)

Initial analysis of RFS in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 for KEYTRUDA at a 14.4-Month Median Follow-Up vs 14.3 Months for Placebo2

KEYTRUDA (n=487)Placebo (n=489)
HRa,b=0.65 (95% CI, 0.46–0.92; P=0.0132c)
Events observed

54 (11%)

Events observed

82 (17%)

Median in Months

NR

(95% CI, 22.6–NR)
Median in Months

NR

(95% CI, NR–NR)
a. Based on the stratified Cox proportional hazard model.
b. Based on log-rank test stratified by AJCC, 8th edition stage.
c. P-value is compared with 0.0202 of the allocated alpha for this interim analysis.
NR = not reached.

Updated RFS Analysis in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 at a 39.4-Month Median Follow-Up3

LIMITATION: No formal statistical testing was planned for the post hoc analysis for RFS that occurred at a median follow-up of 39.4 months and, therefore, no conclusions can be drawn.
Pinch to zoom & enlarge
HRd=0.62 (95% CId, 0.49–0.79)
Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) With KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab) vs Placebo in KEYNOTE-716

Additional Information

Updated RFS analysis for KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 at a 39.4-month median follow up:

  • The RFS hazard ratiod was 0.62 (95% CId, 0.49–0.79).
  • 117/487 (24%) of patients in the KEYTRUDA arm and 174/489 (35.6%) of patients in the placebo arm experienced RFS events.
  • Median RFS was not reached in either arm.
d. Based on Cox regression model with Efron’s method of tie handling with treatment as a covariate stratified by melanoma T Stage (T3b vs. T4a vs. T4b).

KEYTRUDA Significantly Improved Distant Metastasis-Free Survivale (DMFS) vs Placebo in Patients With Completely Resected Stage IIB or IIC Melanoma


KEYTRUDA significantly reduced the risk of completely resected stage IIB or IIC melanoma returning as stage IV disease4,f vs placebo (HRg,h=0.64; 95% CI, 0.47-0.88; Pg=0.0058i)

Initial Analysis of DMFS, an Additional Efficacy Outcome Measure, in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 at a 27.4-Month Median Follow-Up5

KEYTRUDA (n=487)Placebo (n=489)
HRg,h=0.64; (95% CI, 0.47–0.88; Pg=0.0058i)
Events observed

63 (13%)

Events observed

95 (19%)

Median in Months

NR

(95% CI, NR–NR)
Median in Months

NR

(95% CI, NR–NR)
e. DMFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first diagnosis of distant metastasis.6 Distant metastasis is defined as a spread of tumor to distant organs or distant lymph nodes.
f. As defined in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition, the presence of distant metastases indicates stage IV disease.
g. Based on the stratified Cox proportional hazard model.
h. Based on a a log-rank test stratified by AJCC 8th edition stage.
i. P-value is compared with 0.0256 of the allocated alpha for this interim analysis.

Updated Analysis: Kaplan-Meier Estimates of DMFS With KEYTRUDA and Placebo at a 39.4-Month Median Follow-Up in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠7163

LIMITATION: No formal statistical testing was planned for the protocol-specified analysis for DMFS that occurred at a median follow-up of 39.4 months and, therefore, no conclusions can be drawn.
Pinch to zoom & enlarge
HRj=0.59 (95% CI, 0.44–0.79)
Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Distant Metastasis-Free Survival (DMFS) in KEYNOTE-716

Additional Information

Updated DMFS analysis for KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 at a 39.4-month median follow up:

  • The DMFS hazard ratio was 0.59j (95% CI, 0.44–0.79).
  • 74/487 (15.2%) of patients in the KEYTRUDA arm and 119/489 (24.3%) of patients in the placebo arm experienced DMFS events.
  • Median DMFS was not reached in either arm.
j. Based on Cox regression model with Efron’s method of the handling with treatment as a covariate stratified by melanoma T Stage (T3b vs T4a vs T4b).

Study Design for KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716 (Stage IIB/IIC)


Study Overview

Phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 976 patients2
Select Eligibility Criteria
  • Age ≥12
  • Completely resected stage IIB or stage IIC melanoma
  • No previous treatment for melanoma beyond complete surgical resection

Randomization was stratified by AJCC 8th edition T stage (>2.0–4.0 mm with ulceration vs >4.0 mm without ulceration vs >4.0 mm with ulceration).

Randomized 1:1 (N=976)

Study Arms2

KEYTRUDA
Treatment

Adults: KEYTRUDA 200 mg IV Q3W

Pediatric (≥12 years old): KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg up to a maximum of 200 mg IV Q3W

Treatment continued for up to 1 year (n=487)

Recurrence >6 months
(after completion of 1 year of pembrolizumab)
Post Recurrence (Unblinded Treatment)

Adults: KEYTRUDA 200 mg IV Q3W

Pediatric (≥12 years old): KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg up to a maximum of 200 mg IV Q3W

Treatment continued until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 2 years

Placebo
Treatment
Placebo IV Q3W for up to 1 year (n=489)
Recurrence
Crossover to KEYTRUDA
Post Recurrence (Unblinded Treatment)

Adults: KEYTRUDA 200 mg IV Q3W

Pediatric (≥12 years old): KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg up to a maximum of 200 mg IV Q3W

Treatment continued until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, or up to 2 years

End Points

Major efficacy outcome measure (primary endpoint):

  • The major efficacy outcome measure was investigator-assessed RFS defined as the time between the date of randomization and the date of first recurrence [local, in-transit, or regional lymph nodes, or distant recurrence] or death, whichever occurred first).
  • New primary melanomas were excluded from the definition of RFS. Patients underwent imaging every 6 months for 1 year from randomization, every 6 months from years 2 to 4, and then once in year 5 from randomization or until recurrence, whichever came first.

Additional efficacy outcome measure (secondary endpoint):

  • The additional efficacy outcome measure was DMFS defined as the time from randomization to the first diagnosis of distant metastasis per RECIST v1.1. Distant metastasis refers to cancer that has spread from the original (primary) tumor and beyond local tissues and lymph nodes to distant organs or distant lymph nodes.6

Patient Characteristics

Baseline Characteristics of Patients (N=976)

All patients randomized at baseline:

  • Median age: 61 years (range: 16–87), 39% age 65 or older
  • Male: 60%
  • White: 98%
  • ECOG PS of 0: 93%; ECOG PS of 1: 7%
  • Stage IIB: 64%
  • Stage IIC: 35%

Stage IIB/IIC: Risk of Recurrence from a Retrospective Study

Data from a Retrospective Study: Risk of Recurrence for Resected Stage IIB and IIC Melanoma7

Study design: A retrospective review of 738 adult patients from a prospectively maintained, single-institution database, with resected pathologic stage II primary cutaneous melanoma (AJCC 7th ed.). All patients were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between January 1993 and December 2013. Patients underwent pathological nodal staging by sentinel lymph node biopsy or elective lymph node dissection. Median follow-up of patients with stage IIB and stage IIC melanoma was 50.2 and 46.2 months, respectively.

Rates of Recurrence7

Resected Stage IIB MelanomaResected Stage IIC Melanoma
Rate of Recurrence

32%

(n=73/226)
Rate of Recurrence

46%

(n=52/112)
Of the 73 patients with recurrence, distant metastasis was the first recurrence ink

30%

(n=22/73)
Of the 52 patients with recurrence, distant metastasis was the first recurrence inl

52%

(n=27/52)
Half of all recurrences occurred by

23 months

Half of all recurrences occurred by

15 months

Additional Information

Sites of distant metastasis included lung, liver, brain, bone, distant lymph nodes, skin/subcutaneous, and GI tract.

k. The sites of first recurrence for remaining patients were local/in-transit (47%) and regional nodal (23%).
l. The sites of first recurrence for remaining patients were local/in-transit (29%) and regional nodal (19%).

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®)

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) recommends pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA) for resected stage III melanoma and resected pathologically staged IIB and IIC melanoma

Stage IIB and IIC melanoma: NCCN Guidelines® recommend pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA) as an option for the adjuvant treatment of patients with pathologically staged IIB or IIC cutaneous melanoma (category 1).8,m-o

Stage III melanoma: NCCN Guidelines® recommend pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA) as an option for the adjuvant treatment of select patients with stage III cutaneous melanoma with resectable clinically positive nodes (category 1 and preferred).8,p

m. Pathologic staging (with SLN biopsy) is strongly recommended for stage IIB and IIC melanoma prior to consideration of adjuvant pembrolizumab—to enhance risk/benefit patient discussions and optimize local/regional disease control.
n. For stage IIB/IIC patients being considered for adjuvant therapy, pretreatment imaging is appropriate.
o. Adjuvant pembrolizumab is active in reducing relapse events for resected stage IIB and IIC melanoma. However, longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of adjuvant pembrolizumab on overall survival. Clinicians considering adjuvant pembrolizumab therapy for stages IIB or IIC disease should have a detailed discussion with the patient, to weigh the pros and cons of treatment benefit vs toxicity. Factors to be considered, in addition to stage, include patient’s age, performance status, personal/family history of autoimmune disease, and tolerance for risk.
p. Pembrolizumab has shown clinically significant improvement in RFS compared to placebo, but its impact on OS has not yet been reported.

NCCN makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use, or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way.

Category 1 = Based upon high-level evidence, there is uniform National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) consensus that the intervention is appropriate.

AJCC = American Joint Committee on Cancer; SLN = sentinel lymph node; SLNB = sentinel lymph node biopsy.

8. Referenced with permission from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Cutaneous Melanoma V.3.2023. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2023. All rights reserved. Accessed November 2, 2023. To view the most recent and complete version of the guidelines, go online to NCCN.org.

Clinical Findings from KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 (Stage III)

Significant Improvement in Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) Demonstrated With KEYTRUDA vs Placebo


For adjuvant treatment in patients (12 years and older) with completely resected stage III melanoma9

Initial Analysis of RFS in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 for KEYTRUDA vs Placebo at a 15.1-Month Median Follow-Up9

KEYTRUDA (n=514)Placebo (n=505)
HRq,r=0.57 (95% CI, 0.46–0.70; P<0.001s)
Events observed

135 (26%)

Events observed

216 (43%)

Median in Months

NR

Median in Months

20.4

(95% CI, 16.2–NR)
q. Based on the stratified Cox proportional hazard model.
r. Stratified by American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition (AJCC) stage.
s. P-value is compared with 0.016 of the allocated alpha for this interim analysis.
43%

Reduction in the risk of disease recurrence or death with KEYTRUDA compared with placebo

HR=0.57 (95% CI, 0.46–0.70; P=0.001)

5-Year RFS Analysis in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054: Kaplan-Meier Estimates With KEYTRUDA and Placebo at a 4.9-Year Median Follow-Up10,11

LIMITATION: No formal statistical testing was planned for the post hoc analysis of RFS that occurred at a median follow-up of 4.9 years and, therefore, no conclusions can be drawn.
Pinch to zoom & enlarge
HRt=0.61 (95% CI, 0.51–0.72)
5-Year Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) Analysis in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054

Additional Information

Updated RFS analysis for KEYNOTE⁠⁠-⁠054 at a 4.9-year median follow up:

  • The RFS hazard ratiot was 0.61 (95% CIt, 0.51–0.72).
  • 228/514 (44.4%) of patients in the KEYTRUDA arm and 304/505 (60.2%) of patients in the placebo arm experienced RFS events.
  • Median RFS was 67.4 months in the KEYTRUDA arm and 21.2 months in the placebo arm.
t. Based on Cox regression model with treatment as a covariate stratified by stage (IIIA [>1 mm metastasis] vs. IIIB vs. IIIC 1-3 nodes vs. IIIC = 4 nodes) as indicated at randomization.
Placebo = complete surgical resection followed by observation.

KEYTRUDA Significantly Improved Distant Metastasis-Free Survivalu (DMFS) vs Placebo in Patients With Completely Resected Stage III Melanoma


KEYTRUDA significantly reduced the risk of recurrence as stage IV disease4,v or death vs placebo in patients with completely resected stage III melanoma (HRw,x=0.60; 95% CI, 0.49-0.73; P<0.0001y,z)

Initial Analysis of DMFS, an Additional Efficacy Outcome Measure, in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 at a 42.3-Month Median Follow-Up12

KEYTRUDA (n=514)Placebo (n=505)
HRw,x=0.60 (95% CI, 0.49–0.73; P<0.0001y,z)
Events observed

173 (34%)

Events observed

245 (49%)

Median in Months

NR

(95% CI, 49.6–NR)
Median in Months

40.0

(95% CI, 27.7-NR)

Initial Analysis (ITT Population): Kaplan-Meier Estimates of DMFS With KEYTRUDA vs Placebo at a 42.3-Month Median Follow-Up in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠05412

Pinch to zoom & enlarge
HRw,x=0.60 (95% CI, 0.49–0.73; P<0.0001y,z)
Kaplan-Meier Estimates of Distant Metastasis-Free Survival (DMFS) With KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab) vs Placebo in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054
u. DMFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first diagnosis of distant metastasis or date of death (whatever the cause), whichever occurs first.13 DMFS is defined as a spread of tumor to distant organs or distant lymph nodes.
v. As defined in AJCC 7th edition, the presence of distant metastases indicates stage IV disease.
w. Based on the stratified Cox proportional hazard model.
x. Stratified by AJCC 7th edition stage.
y. P-value is compared with 0.028 of the allocated alpha for this analysis.
z. Based on a log-rank test.
ITT = intent-to-treat.

Efficacy demonstrated regardless of PD⁠-⁠L1 status

For patients with PD⁠-⁠L1 positive tumors, the RFS HR was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.42–0.69); P<0.0001.

For patients with PD⁠-⁠L1 positive tumors, the DMFS HR was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.49-0.76); P<0.0001.

The RFS and DMFS benefit for KEYTRUDA compared with placebo was observed regardless of tumor PD⁠-⁠L1 expression.

PD⁠-⁠L1 = programmed death ligand 1; HR = hazard ratio; CI = confidence interval.

Study Design for KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 (Stage III)

Study Overview9

Phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in collaboration with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) to compare treatment with KEYTRUDA vs placebo following complete surgical resection of high risk, stage III melanoma, as well as an anti⁠–⁠PD⁠-1 rechallenge crossover design.
Select Eligibility Criteria9,14
  • Age ≥18 years
  • Completely resected stage IIIA (>1-mm lymph node metastasis), IIIB or IIIC melanoma (AJCC, 7th ed.)
  • PD⁠-⁠L1 expression evaluation
  • Lymph node dissection within 13 weeks prior to starting treatment
  • Randomization within 13 weeks of surgery
  • Radiotherapy within 13 weeks post-surgery, if indicated, prior to starting treatment

Randomization was stratified by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th ed stage (IIIA vs IIIB vs IIIC 1-3 positive lymph nodes vs IIIC ≥4 positive lymph nodes) and geographic region (North America, European countries, Australia, and other countries as designated).

Randomized 1:1 (N=1019)

Study Arms14

KEYTRUDA
Treatment
KEYTRUDA 200 mg IV infusion Q3W for up to 1 year (n=514) until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity
Recurrence >6 months
(after completion of 1 year of pembrolizumab)
Post Recurrence (Unblinded Treatment)

KEYTRUDA 200 mg IV Q3W until disease recurrence, or unacceptable toxicity, or up to 2 years

Placebo
Treatment
Placebo IV Q3W for up to 1 year (n=505)
Recurrence
Crossover to KEYTRUDA
Post Recurrence (Unblinded Treatment)

KEYTRUDA 200 mg IV Q3W until disease recurrence, or unacceptable toxicity, or up to 2 years

End Points

Major efficacy outcome measure (primary endpoint):

  • Investigator assessed RFS in the whole population and in the population with PD⁠-⁠L1-positive tumors, where RFS was defined as the time between the date of randomization and the date of first recurrence (local, regional, or distant metastasis) or death, whichever occurs first.
  • New primary melanomas were excluded from the definition of RFS.

Additional efficacy outcome measure (secondary endpoint):

  • The additional efficacy outcome measure was DMFS defined as the time from randomization to the first diagnosis of distant metastasis or date of death (whatever the cause), whichever occurs first.13

Study Design Details

  • Patients underwent imaging every 12 weeks after the first dose of KEYTRUDA for the first 2 years, then every 6 months from Year 3 to 5, and then annually.

Patient Characteristics

Baseline Characteristics of Patients (N=1019)

All patients randomized at baseline:

  • Median age: 54 years (range: 19–88), 25% age 65 or older
  • Male: 62%
  • ECOG PS of 0: 94%; ECOG PS of 1: 6%
  • Stage IIIA: 16%
  • Stage IIIB: 46%
  • Stage IIIC (1-3 positive lymph nodes): 18%
  • Stage IIIC (≥4 positive lymph nodes): 20%
  • BRAF V600 mutation positive: 50%
  • BRAF wild type: 44%
  • PD⁠-⁠L1 positive with TPS ≥1% according to an IUO assay: 84%
IV = intravenous; PD⁠-⁠L1 = programmed death ligand 1; ECOG PS = Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; TPS = tumor proportion score; IUO = investigational use only.

KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 Recurrence Rates

Recurrence Rates at 3-Year Analysis in Patients With Stage III Melanoma Who Received Placebo in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠05415

Data shown is for patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph node(s) following complete resection.

LIMITATION: KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 was not powered to measure rate of recurrence at the 3-year analysis for patients who received placebo or to detect differences in the treatment effect between substages. Therefore, no conclusions can be drawn.

Pinch to zoom & enlarge
KEYNOTE-054 Recurrence Rates at 3-Year Analysis

Additional Information

Recurrence in the KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 trial included local, regional, and distant recurrences, as well as death from any cause.

Patients enrolled in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 had stage IIIA (>1mm lymph node metastasis), stage IIIB, or stage IIIC melanoma according to AJCC, 7th ed.

Median follow-up time for 3-year analysis was 36.6 months.

aa. Staging according to AJCC, 7th ed.
bb. Staging according to AJCC, 8th ed.
1. Opdivo [package insert]. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; 2023.
2. Luke JJ, Rutkowski P, Queirolo P, et al. Pembrolizumab versus placebo as adjuvant therapy in completely resected stage IIB or IIC melanoma (KEYNOTE-716): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet. Published online March 31, 2022. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00562-1.
3. Data available on request from Merck, Professional Services-DAP, WP1-27, PO Box 4, West Point, PA 19486-0004. Please specify information package US-OOC-02288.
4. Keung E, Gershenwald J. The eighth edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system: implications for melanoma treatment and care. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2018;18(8):775–784. doi:10.1080/14737140.2018.1489246
5. Long GV, Luke JJ, Khattak MA, et al. Pembrolizumab versus placebo as adjuvant therapy in resected stage IIB or IIC melanoma (KEYNOTE-716): distant metastasis-free survival results of a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2022;23(11):1378-1388. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(22)00559-9
6. Safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab compared to placebo in resected high-risk stage II melanoma (MK-3475-716/KEYNOTE-716). ClinicalTrials.gov. Updated September 13, 2023. Accessed September 26, 2023. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03553836
7. Lee AY, Droppelmann N, Panageas KS, et al. Patterns and timing of initial relapse in pathologic stage II melanoma patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017;24(4):939–946.
8. Referenced with permission from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Cutaneous Melanoma V.3.2023. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2023. All rights reserved. Accessed November 2, 2023. To view the most recent and complete version of the guidelines, go online to NCCN.org.
9. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandala M, et al. Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(19):1789–1801.
10. Data available on request from Merck, Professional Services-DAP, WP1-27, PO Box 4, West Point, PA 19486-0004. Please specify information package US-OOC-02289.
11. Eggermont AMM, Kicinski M, Blank CU, et al. Five-Year analysis of adjuvant pembrolizumab or placebo in stage iii melanoma. NEJM Evid. 2022;1(1):1-12. doi:10.1056/EVIDe2100015
12. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandalà M, et al. Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma (EORTC 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054): distant metastasis-free survival results from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021;22(5):643-654. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00065-6
13. Study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) versus placebo after complete resection of high-risk stage III melanoma (MK-3475-054/1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054). Clinical Trials.gov. Updated August 21, 2023. Accessed August 23, 2023. https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02362594?term=Nct02362594&draw=2&rank=1
14. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandala M, et al. Supplementary Appendix to: Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(19):1789-1801. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1802357.
15. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandala M, et al. Longer follow-up confirms recurrence-free survival benefit of adjuvant pembrolizumab in high-risk stage III melanoma: updated results from the EORTC 1325-MG/KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020;38(33):3925–3936.

Selected Indications for KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab)

Advanced Melanoma or Adjuvant Therapy for Melanoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult and pediatric (12 years and older) patients with stage IIB, IIC, or III melanoma following complete resection.

Selected Safety Information

Severe and Fatal Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

  • KEYTRUDA is a monoclonal antibody that belongs to a class of drugs that bind to either the programmed death receptor-1 (PD⁠-⁠1) or the programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1), blocking the PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 pathway, thereby removing inhibition of the immune response, potentially breaking peripheral tolerance and inducing immune-mediated adverse reactions. Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue, can affect more than one body system simultaneously, and can occur at any time after starting treatment or after discontinuation of treatment. Important immune-mediated adverse reactions listed here may not include all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions.
  • Monitor patients closely for symptoms and signs that may be clinical manifestations of underlying immune-mediated adverse reactions. Early identification and management are essential to ensure safe use of anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Evaluate liver enzymes, creatinine, and thyroid function at baseline and periodically during treatment. For patients with TNBC treated with KEYTRUDA in the neoadjuvant setting, monitor blood cortisol at baseline, prior to surgery, and as clinically indicated. In cases of suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, initiate appropriate workup to exclude alternative etiologies, including infection. Institute medical management promptly, including specialty consultation as appropriate.
  • Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity of the immune-mediated adverse reaction. In general, if KEYTRUDA requires interruption or discontinuation, administer systemic corticosteroid therapy (1 to 2 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent) until improvement to Grade 1 or less. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Consider administration of other systemic immunosuppressants in patients whose adverse reactions are not controlled with corticosteroid therapy.

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis. The incidence is higher in patients who have received prior thoracic radiation. Immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 3.4% (94/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including fatal (0.1%), Grade 4 (0.3%), Grade 3 (0.9%), and Grade 2 (1.3%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 67% (63/94) of patients. Pneumonitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 1.3% (36) and withholding in 0.9% (26) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 23% had recurrence. Pneumonitis resolved in 59% of the 94 patients.
  • Pneumonitis occurred in 8% (31/389) of adult patients with cHL receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3–4 in 2.3% of patients. Patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median duration of 10 days (range: 2 days to 53 months). Pneumonitis rates were similar in patients with and without prior thoracic radiation. Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 5.4% (21) of patients. Of the patients who developed pneumonitis, 42% interrupted KEYTRUDA, 68% discontinued KEYTRUDA, and 77% had resolution.
  • Pneumonitis occurred in 7% (41/580) of adult patients with resected NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent for adjuvant treatment of NSCLC, including fatal (0.2%), Grade 4 (0.3%), and Grade 3 (1%) adverse reactions. Patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median duration of 10 days (range: 1 day to 2.3 months). Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 26 (4.5%) of patients. Of the patients who developed pneumonitis, 54% interrupted KEYTRUDA, 63% discontinued KEYTRUDA, and 71% had resolution.

Immune-Mediated Colitis

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated colitis, which may present with diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus infection/reactivation has been reported in patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune-mediated colitis. In cases of corticosteroid-refractory colitis, consider repeating infectious workup to exclude alternative etiologies. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.7% (48/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (1.1%), and Grade 2 (0.4%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 69% (33/48); additional immunosuppressant therapy was required in 4.2% of patients. Colitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.5% (15) and withholding in 0.5% (13) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 23% had recurrence. Colitis resolved in 85% of the 48 patients.

Hepatotoxicity and Immune-Mediated Hepatitis

KEYTRUDA AS A SINGLE AGENT
    • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 0.7% (19/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.4%), and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 68% (13/19) of patients; additional immunosuppressant therapy was required in 11% of patients. Hepatitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.2% (6) and withholding in 0.3% (9) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, none had recurrence. Hepatitis resolved in 79% of the 19 patients.
KEYTRUDA WITH AXITINIB
    • KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib can cause hepatic toxicity. Monitor liver enzymes before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Consider monitoring more frequently as compared to when the drugs are administered as single agents. For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt KEYTRUDA and axitinib, and consider administering corticosteroids as needed. With the combination of KEYTRUDA and axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (20%) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (13%) were seen at a higher frequency compared to KEYTRUDA alone. Fifty-nine percent of the patients with increased ALT received systemic corticosteroids. In patients with ALT ≥3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) (Grades 2–4, n=116), ALT resolved to Grades 0–1 in 94%. Among the 92 patients who were rechallenged with either KEYTRUDA (n=3) or axitinib (n=34) administered as a single agent or with both (n=55), recurrence of ALT ≥3 times ULN was observed in 1 patient receiving KEYTRUDA, 16 patients receiving axitinib, and 24 patients receiving both. All patients with a recurrence of ALT ≥3 ULN subsequently recovered from the event.

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY
    • KEYTRUDA can cause primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency. For Grade 2 or higher, initiate symptomatic treatment, including hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.8% (22/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.3%), and Grade 2 (0.3%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 77% (17/22) of patients; of these, the majority remained on systemic corticosteroids. Adrenal insufficiency led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) and withholding in 0.3% (8) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.
HYPOPHYSITIS
    • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hypophysitis. Hypophysitis can present with acute symptoms associated with mass effect such as headache, photophobia, or visual field defects. Hypophysitis can cause hypopituitarism. Initiate hormone replacement as indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (17/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.3%), and Grade 2 (0.2%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 94% (16/17) of patients; of these, the majority remained on systemic corticosteroids. Hypophysitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.1% (4) and withholding in 0.3% (7) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.
THYROID DISORDERS
    • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated thyroid disorders. Thyroiditis can present with or without endocrinopathy. Hypothyroidism can follow hyperthyroidism. Initiate hormone replacement for hypothyroidism or institute medical management of hyperthyroidism as clinically indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Thyroiditis occurred in 0.6% (16/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.3%). None discontinued, but KEYTRUDA was withheld in <0.1% (1) of patients.
    • Hyperthyroidism occurred in 3.4% (96/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (0.1%) and Grade 2 (0.8%). It led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (2) and withholding in 0.3% (7) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement. Hypothyroidism occurred in 8% (237/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (0.1%) and Grade 2 (6.2%). It led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) and withholding in 0.5% (14) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement. The majority of patients with hypothyroidism required long-term thyroid hormone replacement. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 1185 patients with HNSCC, occurring in 16% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent or in combination with platinum and FU, including Grade 3 (0.3%) hypothyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 389 adult patients with cHL (17%) receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grade 1 (6.2%) and Grade 2 (10.8%) hypothyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hyperthyroidism was higher in 580 patients with resected NSCLC, occurring in 11% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent as adjuvant treatment, including Grade 3 (0.2%) hyperthyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 580 patients with resected NSCLC, occurring in 22% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent as adjuvant treatment (KEYNOTE⁠-⁠091), including Grade 3 (0.3%) hypothyroidism.
TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS (DM), WHICH CAN PRESENT WITH DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS
    • Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Initiate treatment with insulin as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Type 1 DM occurred in 0.2% (6/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. It led to permanent discontinuation in <0.1% (1) and withholding of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis With Renal Dysfunction

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.3% (9/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.1%), and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 89% (8/9) of patients. Nephritis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.1% (3) and withholding in 0.1% (3) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, none had recurrence. Nephritis resolved in 56% of the 9 patients.

Immune-Mediated Dermatologic Adverse Reactions

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated rash or dermatitis. Exfoliative dermatitis, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, has occurred with anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Topical emollients and/or topical corticosteroids may be adequate to treat mild to moderate nonexfoliative rashes. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Immune-mediated dermatologic adverse reactions occurred in 1.4% (38/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (1%) and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 40% (15/38) of patients. These reactions led to permanent discontinuation in 0.1% (2) and withholding of KEYTRUDA in 0.6% (16) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 6% had recurrence. The reactions resolved in 79% of the 38 patients.

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

  • The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of <1% (unless otherwise noted) in patients who received KEYTRUDA or were reported with the use of other anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Severe or fatal cases have been reported for some of these adverse reactions. Cardiac/Vascular: Myocarditis, pericarditis, vasculitis; Nervous System: Meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and demyelination, myasthenic syndrome/myasthenia gravis (including exacerbation), Guillain-Barré syndrome, nerve paresis, autoimmune neuropathy; Ocular: Uveitis, iritis and other ocular inflammatory toxicities can occur. Some cases can be associated with retinal detachment. Various grades of visual impairment, including blindness, can occur. If uveitis occurs in combination with other immune-mediated adverse reactions, consider a Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like syndrome, as this may require treatment with systemic steroids to reduce the risk of permanent vision loss; Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, to include increases in serum amylase and lipase levels, gastritis, duodenitis; Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: Myositis/polymyositis, rhabdomyolysis (and associated sequelae, including renal failure), arthritis (1.5%), polymyalgia rheumatica; Endocrine: Hypoparathyroidism; Hematologic/Immune: Hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi lymphadenitis), sarcoidosis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, solid organ transplant rejection, other transplant (including corneal graft) rejection.

Infusion-Related Reactions

  • KEYTRUDA can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions, including hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, which have been reported in 0.2% of 2799 patients receiving KEYTRUDA. Monitor for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for Grade 1 or Grade 2 reactions. For Grade 3 or Grade 4 reactions, stop infusion and permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

  • Fatal and other serious complications can occur in patients who receive allogeneic HSCT before or after anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Transplant-related complications include hyperacute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute and chronic GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease after reduced intensity conditioning, and steroid-requiring febrile syndrome (without an identified infectious cause). These complications may occur despite intervening therapy between anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments and allogeneic HSCT. Follow patients closely for evidence of these complications and intervene promptly. Consider the benefit vs risks of using anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments prior to or after an allogeneic HSCT.

Increased Mortality in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

  • In trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of KEYTRUDA to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of these patients with an anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatment in this combination is not recommended outside of controlled trials.

Embryofetal Toxicity

  • Based on its mechanism of action, KEYTRUDA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of this potential risk. In females of reproductive potential, verify pregnancy status prior to initiating KEYTRUDA and advise them to use effective contraception during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Adverse Reactions

  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠006, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 9% of 555 patients with advanced melanoma; adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation in more than one patient were colitis (1.4%), autoimmune hepatitis (0.7%), allergic reaction (0.4%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), and cardiac failure (0.4%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA were fatigue (28%), diarrhea (26%), rash (24%), and nausea (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent to patients with stage III melanoma, KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 509 patients; the most common (≥1%) were pneumonitis (1.4%), colitis (1.2%), and diarrhea (1%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. The most common adverse reaction (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA was diarrhea (28%). In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent to patients with stage IIB or IIC melanoma, adverse reactions occurring in patients with stage IIB or IIC melanoma were similar to those occurring in 1011 patients with stage III melanoma from KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠189, when KEYTRUDA was administered with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy in metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 20% of 405 patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis (3%) and acute kidney injury (2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA were nausea (56%), fatigue (56%), constipation (35%), diarrhea (31%), decreased appetite (28%), rash (25%), vomiting (24%), cough (21%), dyspnea (21%), and pyrexia (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠407, when KEYTRUDA was administered with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein‑bound in metastatic squamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of 101 patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection. Adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠407 were similar to those observed in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠189 with the exception that increased incidences of alopecia (47% vs 36%) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 25%) were observed in the KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy arm compared to the placebo and chemotherapy arm in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠407.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠042, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 19% of 636 patients with advanced NSCLC; the most common were pneumonitis (3%), death due to unknown cause (1.6%), and pneumonia (1.4%). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were pneumonia (7%), pneumonitis (3.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.4%), and pleural effusion (2.2%). The most common adverse reaction (≥20%) was fatigue (25%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠010, KEYTRUDA monotherapy was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 682 patients with metastatic NSCLC; the most common was pneumonitis (1.8%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were decreased appetite (25%), fatigue (25%), dyspnea (23%), and nausea (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠671, adverse reactions occurring in patients with resectable NSCLC receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with platinum-containing chemotherapy, given as neoadjuvant treatment and continued as single-agent adjuvant treatment, were generally similar to those occurring in patients in other clinical trials across tumor types receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy.
  • The most common adverse reactions (reported in ≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were fatigue/asthenia, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, cough, dyspnea, pyrexia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, mucosal inflammation, stomatitis, headache, weight loss, abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, insomnia, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, urinary tract infection, and hypothyroidism.
  • In the neoadjuvant phase of KEYNOTE⁠-⁠671, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with platinum-containing chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment, serious adverse reactions occurred in 34% of 396 patients. The most frequent (≥2%) serious adverse reactions were pneumonia (4.8%), venous thromboembolism (3.3%), and anemia (2%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.3% of patients, including death due to unknown cause (0.8%), sepsis (0.3%), and immune-mediated lung disease (0.3%). Permanent discontinuation of any study drug due to an adverse reaction occurred in 18% of patients who received KEYTRUDA in combination with platinum-containing chemotherapy; the most frequent adverse reactions (≥1%) that led to permanent discontinuation of any study drug were acute kidney injury (1.8%), interstitial lung disease (1.8%), anemia (1.5%), neutropenia (1.5%), and pneumonia (1.3%).
  • Of the KEYTRUDA-treated patients who received neoadjuvant treatment, 6% of 396 patients did not receive surgery due to adverse reactions. The most frequent (≥1%) adverse reaction that led to cancellation of surgery in the KEYTRUDA arm was interstitial lung disease (1%).
  • In the adjuvant phase of KEYNOTE⁠-⁠671, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent as adjuvant treatment, serious adverse reactions occurred in 14% of 290 patients. The most frequent serious adverse reaction was pneumonia (3.4%). One fatal adverse reaction of pulmonary hemorrhage occurred. Permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA due to an adverse reaction occurred in 12% of patients who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent, given as adjuvant treatment; the most frequent adverse reactions (≥1%) that led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were diarrhea (1.7%), interstitial lung disease (1.4%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (1%), and musculoskeletal pain (1%).
  • Adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠091 were generally similar to those occurring in other patients with NSCLC receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, with the exception of hypothyroidism (22%), hyperthyroidism (11%), and pneumonitis (7%). Two fatal adverse reactions of myocarditis occurred.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠048, KEYTRUDA monotherapy was discontinued due to adverse events in 12% of 300 patients with HNSCC; the most common adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation were sepsis (1.7%) and pneumonia (1.3%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (33%), constipation (20%), and rash (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠048, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin) and FU chemotherapy, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 16% of 276 patients with HNSCC. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonia (2.5%), pneumonitis (1.8%), and septic shock (1.4%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were nausea (51%), fatigue (49%), constipation (37%), vomiting (32%), mucosal inflammation (31%), diarrhea (29%), decreased appetite (29%), stomatitis (26%), and cough (22%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠012, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 17% of 192 patients with HNSCC. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 45% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were pneumonia, dyspnea, confusional state, vomiting, pleural effusion, and respiratory failure. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue, decreased appetite, and dyspnea. Adverse reactions occurring in patients with HNSCC were generally similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy, with the exception of increased incidences of facial edema and new or worsening hypothyroidism.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠204, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 148 patients with cHL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; those ≥1% were pneumonitis, pneumonia, pyrexia, myocarditis, acute kidney injury, febrile neutropenia, and sepsis. Three patients died from causes other than disease progression: 2 from complications after allogeneic HSCT and 1 from unknown cause. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were upper respiratory tract infection (41%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (22%), and pyrexia, fatigue, rash, and cough (20% each).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠087, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 5% of 210 patients with cHL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 16% of patients; those ≥1% were pneumonia, pneumonitis, pyrexia, dyspnea, GVHD, and herpes zoster. Two patients died from causes other than disease progression: 1 from GVHD after subsequent allogeneic HSCT and 1 from septic shock. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (26%), pyrexia (24%), cough (24%), musculoskeletal pain (21%), diarrhea (20%), and rash (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠170, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 53 patients with PMBCL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 26% of patients and included arrhythmia (4%), cardiac tamponade (2%), myocardial infarction (2%), pericardial effusion (2%), and pericarditis (2%). Six (11%) patients died within 30 days of start of treatment. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were musculoskeletal pain (30%), upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia (28% each), cough (26%), fatigue (23%), and dyspnea (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠A39, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with enfortumab vedotin to patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (n=440), fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.9% of patients, including acute respiratory failure (0.7%), pneumonia (0.5%), and pneumonitis/ILD (0.2%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 50% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin; the serious adverse reactions in ≥2% of patients were rash (6%), acute kidney injury (5%), pneumonitis/ILD (4.5%), urinary tract infection (3.6%), diarrhea (3.2%), pneumonia (2.3%), pyrexia (2%), and hyperglycemia (2%). Permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA occurred in 27% of patients. The most common adverse reactions (≥2%) resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis/ILD (4.8%) and rash (3.4%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) occurring in patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin were rash (68%), peripheral neuropathy (67%), fatigue (51%), pruritus (41%), diarrhea (38%), alopecia (35%), weight loss (33%), decreased appetite (33%), nausea (26%), constipation (26%), dry eye (24%), dysgeusia (21%), and urinary tract infection (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠052, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 11% of 370 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 42% of patients; those ≥2% were urinary tract infection, hematuria, acute kidney injury, pneumonia, and urosepsis. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (38%), musculoskeletal pain (24%), decreased appetite (22%), constipation (21%), rash (21%), and diarrhea (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠045, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 266 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA was pneumonitis (1.9%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 39% of KEYTRUDA-treated patients; those ≥2% were urinary tract infection, pneumonia, anemia, and pneumonitis. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients who received KEYTRUDA were fatigue (38%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), pruritus (23%), decreased appetite (21%), nausea (21%), and rash (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠057, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 11% of 148 patients with high-risk NMIBC. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA was pneumonitis (1.4%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 28% of patients; those ≥2% were pneumonia (3%), cardiac ischemia (2%), colitis (2%), pulmonary embolism (2%), sepsis (2%), and urinary tract infection (2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (29%), diarrhea (24%), and rash (24%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR CRC were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠158 and KEYNOTE⁠-⁠164, adverse reactions occurring in patients with MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR cancer were similar to those occurring in patients with other solid tumors who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠859, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy, serious adverse reactions occurred in 45% of 785 patients. Serious adverse reactions in >2% of patients included pneumonia (4.1%), diarrhea (3.9%), hemorrhage (3.9%), and vomiting (2.4%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 8% of patients who received KEYTRUDA, including infection (2.3%) and thromboembolism (1.3%). KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA (≥1%) were infections (1.8%) and diarrhea (1.0%). The most common adverse reactions (reported in ≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were peripheral neuropathy (47%), nausea (46%), fatigue (40%), diarrhea (36%), vomiting (34%), decreased appetite (29%), abdominal pain (26%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (25%), constipation (22%), and weight loss (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠590, when KEYTRUDA was administered with cisplatin and fluorouracil to patients with metastatic or locally advanced esophageal or GEJ (tumors with epicenter 1 to 5 centimeters above the GEJ) carcinoma who were not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of 370 patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA (≥1%) were pneumonitis (1.6%), acute kidney injury (1.1%), and pneumonia (1.1%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were nausea (67%), fatigue (57%), decreased appetite (44%), constipation (40%), diarrhea (36%), vomiting (34%), stomatitis (27%), and weight loss (24%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with esophageal cancer who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠A18, when KEYTRUDA was administered with CRT (cisplatin plus external beam radiation therapy [EBRT] followed by brachytherapy [BT]) to patients with FIGO 2014 Stage III-IVA cervical cancer, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.4% of 292 patients, including 1 case each (0.3%) of large intestinal perforation, urosepsis, sepsis, and vaginal hemorrhage. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients; those ≥1% included urinary tract infection (2.7%), urosepsis (1.4%), and sepsis (1%). KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 7% of patients. The most common adverse reaction (≥1%) resulting in permanent discontinuation was diarrhea (1%). For patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with CRT, the most common adverse reactions (≥10%) were nausea (56%), diarrhea (50%), vomiting (33%), urinary tract infection (32%), fatigue (26%), hypothyroidism (20%), constipation (18%), decreased appetite and weight loss (17% each), abdominal pain and pyrexia (12% each), hyperthyroidism, dysuria, rash (11% each), and pelvic pain (10%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠826, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin or paclitaxel and carboplatin, with or without bevacizumab (n=307), to patients with persistent, recurrent, or first-line metastatic cervical cancer regardless of tumor PD⁠-⁠L1 expression who had not been treated with chemotherapy except when used concurrently as a radio-sensitizing agent, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 4.6% of patients, including 3 cases of hemorrhage, 2 cases each of sepsis and due to unknown causes, and 1 case each of acute myocardial infarction, autoimmune encephalitis, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, femur fracture with perioperative pulmonary embolus, intestinal perforation, and pelvic infection. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 50% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab; those ≥3% were febrile neutropenia (6.8%), urinary tract infection (5.2%), anemia (4.6%), and acute kidney injury and sepsis (3.3% each).
  • KEYTRUDA was discontinued in 15% of patients due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation (≥1%) was colitis (1%).
  • For patients treated with KEYTRUDA, chemotherapy, and bevacizumab (n=196), the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were peripheral neuropathy (62%), alopecia (58%), anemia (55%), fatigue/asthenia (53%), nausea and neutropenia (41% each), diarrhea (39%), hypertension and thrombocytopenia (35% each), constipation and arthralgia (31% each), vomiting (30%), urinary tract infection (27%), rash (26%), leukopenia (24%), hypothyroidism (22%), and decreased appetite (21%).
  • For patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab, the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were peripheral neuropathy (58%), alopecia (56%), fatigue (47%), nausea (40%), diarrhea (36%), constipation (28%), arthralgia (27%), vomiting (26%), hypertension and urinary tract infection (24% each), and rash (22%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠158, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 98 patients with previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 39% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; the most frequent included anemia (7%), fistula, hemorrhage, and infections [except urinary tract infections] (4.1% each). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (43%), musculoskeletal pain (27%), diarrhea (23%), pain and abdominal pain (22% each), and decreased appetite (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠966, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin, KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 15% of 529 patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic biliary tract cancer. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA (≥1%) was pneumonitis (1.3%). Adverse reactions leading to the interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 55% of patients. The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA (≥2%) were decreased neutrophil count (18%), decreased platelet count (10%), anemia (6%), decreased white blood cell count (4%), pyrexia (3.8%), fatigue (3.0%), cholangitis (2.8%), increased ALT (2.6%), increased AST (2.5%), and biliary obstruction (2.3%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠017 and KEYNOTE⁠-⁠913, adverse reactions occurring in patients with MCC (n=105) were generally similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠426, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with axitinib, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.3% of 429 patients. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 40% of patients, the most frequent (≥1%) were hepatotoxicity (7%), diarrhea (4.2%), acute kidney injury (2.3%), dehydration (1%), and pneumonitis (1%). Permanent discontinuation due to an adverse reaction occurred in 31% of patients; KEYTRUDA only (13%), axitinib only (13%), and the combination (8%); the most common were hepatotoxicity (13%), diarrhea/colitis (1.9%), acute kidney injury (1.6%), and cerebrovascular accident (1.2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were diarrhea (56%), fatigue/asthenia (52%), hypertension (48%), hepatotoxicity (39%), hypothyroidism (35%), decreased appetite (30%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (28%), nausea (28%), stomatitis/mucosal inflammation (27%), dysphonia (25%), rash (25%), cough (21%), and constipation (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠564, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of renal cell carcinoma, serious adverse reactions occurred in 20% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; the serious adverse reactions (≥1%) were acute kidney injury, adrenal insufficiency, pneumonia, colitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis (1% each). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 0.2% including 1 case of pneumonia. Discontinuation of KEYTRUDA due to adverse reactions occurred in 21% of 488 patients; the most common (≥1%) were increased ALT (1.6%), colitis (1%), and adrenal insufficiency (1%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were musculoskeletal pain (41%), fatigue (40%), rash (30%), diarrhea (27%), pruritus (23%), and hypothyroidism (21%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR endometrial carcinoma who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with recurrent or metastatic cSCC or locally advanced cSCC were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠522, when KEYTRUDA was administered with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin or epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) followed by surgery and continued adjuvant treatment with KEYTRUDA as a single agent (n=778) to patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated, high-risk early-stage TNBC, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 0.9% of patients, including 1 each of adrenal crisis, autoimmune encephalitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, pneumonitis, pulmonary embolism, and sepsis in association with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and myocardial infarction. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 44% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; those ≥2% were febrile neutropenia (15%), pyrexia (3.7%), anemia (2.6%), and neutropenia (2.2%). KEYTRUDA was discontinued in 20% of patients due to adverse reactions. The most common reactions (≥1%) resulting in permanent discontinuation were increased ALT (2.7%), increased AST (1.5%), and rash (1%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA were fatigue (70%), nausea (67%), alopecia (61%), rash (52%), constipation (42%), diarrhea and peripheral neuropathy (41% each), stomatitis (34%), vomiting (31%), headache (30%), arthralgia (29%), pyrexia (28%), cough (26%), abdominal pain (24%), decreased appetite (23%), insomnia (21%), and myalgia (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠355, when KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy (paclitaxel, paclitaxel protein⁠-⁠bound, or gemcitabine and carboplatin) were administered to patients with locally recurrent unresectable or metastatic TNBC who had not been previously treated with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (n=596), fatal adverse reactions occurred in 2.5% of patients, including cardio-respiratory arrest (0.7%) and septic shock (0.3%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy; the serious reactions in ≥2% were pneumonia (2.9%), anemia (2.2%), and thrombocytopenia (2%). KEYTRUDA was discontinued in 11% of patients due to adverse reactions. The most common reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation (≥1%) were increased ALT (2.2%), increased AST (1.5%), and pneumonitis (1.2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were fatigue (48%), nausea (44%), alopecia (34%), diarrhea and constipation (28% each), vomiting and rash (26% each), cough (23%), decreased appetite (21%), and headache (20%).

Lactation

  • Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed children, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Pediatric Use

  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠051, 173 pediatric patients (65 pediatric patients aged 6 months to younger than 12 years and 108 pediatric patients aged 12 years to 17 years) were administered KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The median duration of exposure was 2.1 months (range: 1 day to 25 months).
  • Adverse reactions that occurred at a ≥10% higher rate in pediatric patients when compared to adults were pyrexia (33%), leukopenia (31%), vomiting (29%), neutropenia (28%), headache (25%), abdominal pain (23%), thrombocytopenia (22%), Grade 3 anemia (17%), decreased lymphocyte count (13%), and decreased white blood cell count (11%).
Geriatric Use
  • Of the 564 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin, 44% (n=247) were 65-74 years and 26% (n=144) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years of age or older and younger patients. Patients 75 years of age or older treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin experienced a higher incidence of fatal adverse reactions than younger patients. The incidence of fatal adverse reactions was 4% in patients younger than 75 and 7% in patients 75 years or older.
ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; BT = brachytherapy; BTC = biliary tract cancer; cHL = classical Hodgkin lymphoma; CRC = colorectal cancer; CRT = chemoradiotherapy; cSCC = cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; dMMR = mismatch repair deficient; EBRT = external beam radiation therapy; FIGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; FU = fluorouracil; GEJ = gastroesophageal junction; HER2 = human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; HNSCC = head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; ILD = interstitial lung disease; MCC = Merkel cell carcinoma; MSI⁠-⁠H = microsatellite instability-high; NMIBC = non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; NSCLC = non–small cell lung cancer; PMBCL = primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma; TNBC = triple-negative breast cancer.
This site is intended for health care professionals of the United States, its territories, and Puerto Rico. Copyright © 2024 Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA and its affiliates. All rights reserved.
US-OOC-02405 11/23
Level Access Company Logo
Merck Logo
Selected Indications
KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.
KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult and pediatric (12 years and older) patients with stage IIB, IIC, or III melanoma following complete resection.

Selected Indications

For KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab)

Advanced Melanoma or Adjuvant Therapy for Melanoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of adult and pediatric (12 years and older) patients with stage IIB, IIC, or III melanoma following complete resection.

Advanced NSCLC, Adjuvant, or Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Therapy for Non⁠–⁠Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

KEYTRUDA, in combination with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic nonsquamous non⁠–⁠small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with no epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genomic tumor aberrations.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein‑bound, is indicated for the first‑line treatment of patients with metastatic squamous non⁠–⁠small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with non⁠–⁠small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) expressing programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥1%] as determined by an FDA-approved test, with no epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genomic tumor aberrations, and is:

  • stage III where patients are not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, or
  • metastatic.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic non⁠–⁠small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors express programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥1%] as determined by an FDA-approved test, with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving KEYTRUDA.

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with resectable (tumors ≥4 cm or node positive) non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with platinum⁠-⁠containing chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment, and then continued as a single agent as adjuvant treatment after surgery.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for adjuvant treatment following resection and platinum-based chemotherapy for adult patients with stage IB (T2a ≥4 cm), II, or IIIA non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)

KEYTRUDA, in combination with platinum and fluorouracil (FU), is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or with unresectable, recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) whose tumors express programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [combined positive score (CPS) ≥1] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy.

Relapsed or Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL).

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients with refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), or cHL that has relapsed after 2 or more lines of therapy.

Refractory or Relapsed Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma (PMBCL)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), or who have relapsed after 2 or more prior lines of therapy. KEYTRUDA is not recommended for treatment of patients with PMBCL who require urgent cytoreductive therapy.

Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with enfortumab vedotin, is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced (LA) or metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC).

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who are not eligible for any platinum-containing chemotherapy.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy or within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.

High-Risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC)

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-unresponsive, high-risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with carcinoma in situ (CIS) with or without papillary tumors who are ineligible for or have elected not to undergo cystectomy.

Advanced MSI⁠-⁠H/dMMR Cancers

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic microsatellite instability-high (MSI⁠-⁠H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) solid tumors, as determined by an FDA-approved test, that have progressed following prior treatment and who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options.

Advanced MSI⁠-⁠H/dMMR Colorectal Cancer (CRC)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC) as determined by an FDA-approved test.

Advanced HER2-Negative Gastric or GEJ Adenocarcinoma

KEYTRUDA, in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy, is indicated for the first-line treatment of adults with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic HER2-negative gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma.

Advanced Esophageal or GEJ Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) (tumors with epicenter 1 to 5 centimeters above the GEJ) carcinoma that is not amenable to surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation either:

  • in combination with platinum- and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, or
  • as a single agent after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy for patients with tumors of squamous cell histology that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [combined positive score (CPS) ≥10] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

Advanced Cervical Cancer

KEYTRUDA, in combination with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), is indicated for the treatment of patients with FIGO 2014 Stage III-IVA cervical cancer.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab, is indicated for the treatment of patients with persistent, recurrent, or metastatic cervical cancer whose tumors express programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [combined positive score (CPS) ≥1] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [combined positive score (CPS) ≥1] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer (BTC)

KEYTRUDA, in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin, is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic biliary tract cancer (BTC).

Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).

Adjuvant Treatment for RCC or Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the adjuvant treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at intermediate-high or high risk of recurrence following nephrectomy, or following nephrectomy and resection of metastatic lesions.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with axitinib, is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Advanced MSI⁠-⁠H/dMMR Endometrial Carcinoma

KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced endometrial carcinoma that is microsatellite instability-high (MSI⁠-⁠H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have disease progression following prior systemic therapy in any setting and are not candidates for curative surgery or radiation.

Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) or locally advanced cSCC that is not curable by surgery or radiation.

High-Risk Early-Stage or Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)

KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with high-risk early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in combination with chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment, and then continued as a single agent as adjuvant treatment after surgery.

KEYTRUDA, in combination with chemotherapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent unresectable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) whose tumors express programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1) [combined positive score (CPS) ≥10] as determined by an FDA-approved test.

Selected Safety Information
Severe and Fatal Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions: KEYTRUDA is a monoclonal antibody that belongs to a class of drugs that bind to either the programmed death receptor-1 (PD⁠-⁠1) or the programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1), blocking the PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 pathway, thereby removing inhibition of the immune response, potentially breaking peripheral tolerance and inducing immune-mediated adverse reactions. Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue, can affect more than one body system simultaneously, and can occur at any time after starting treatment or after discontinuation of treatment. Important immune-mediated adverse reactions listed here may not include all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions.

Selected Safety Information

For KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab)

Severe and Fatal Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

  • KEYTRUDA is a monoclonal antibody that belongs to a class of drugs that bind to either the programmed death receptor-1 (PD⁠-⁠1) or the programmed death ligand 1 (PD⁠-⁠L1), blocking the PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 pathway, thereby removing inhibition of the immune response, potentially breaking peripheral tolerance and inducing immune-mediated adverse reactions. Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue, can affect more than one body system simultaneously, and can occur at any time after starting treatment or after discontinuation of treatment. Important immune-mediated adverse reactions listed here may not include all possible severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions.
  • Monitor patients closely for symptoms and signs that may be clinical manifestations of underlying immune-mediated adverse reactions. Early identification and management are essential to ensure safe use of anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Evaluate liver enzymes, creatinine, and thyroid function at baseline and periodically during treatment. For patients with TNBC treated with KEYTRUDA in the neoadjuvant setting, monitor blood cortisol at baseline, prior to surgery, and as clinically indicated. In cases of suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, initiate appropriate workup to exclude alternative etiologies, including infection. Institute medical management promptly, including specialty consultation as appropriate.
  • Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity of the immune-mediated adverse reaction. In general, if KEYTRUDA requires interruption or discontinuation, administer systemic corticosteroid therapy (1 to 2 mg/kg/day prednisone or equivalent) until improvement to Grade 1 or less. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Consider administration of other systemic immunosuppressants in patients whose adverse reactions are not controlled with corticosteroid therapy.

Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis. The incidence is higher in patients who have received prior thoracic radiation. Immune-mediated pneumonitis occurred in 3.4% (94/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including fatal (0.1%), Grade 4 (0.3%), Grade 3 (0.9%), and Grade 2 (1.3%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 67% (63/94) of patients. Pneumonitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 1.3% (36) and withholding in 0.9% (26) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 23% had recurrence. Pneumonitis resolved in 59% of the 94 patients.
  • Pneumonitis occurred in 8% (31/389) of adult patients with cHL receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grades 3–4 in 2.3% of patients. Patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median duration of 10 days (range: 2 days to 53 months). Pneumonitis rates were similar in patients with and without prior thoracic radiation. Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 5.4% (21) of patients. Of the patients who developed pneumonitis, 42% interrupted KEYTRUDA, 68% discontinued KEYTRUDA, and 77% had resolution.
  • Pneumonitis occurred in 7% (41/580) of adult patients with resected NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent for adjuvant treatment of NSCLC, including fatal (0.2%), Grade 4 (0.3%), and Grade 3 (1%) adverse reactions. Patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median duration of 10 days (range: 1 day to 2.3 months). Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 26 (4.5%) of patients. Of the patients who developed pneumonitis, 54% interrupted KEYTRUDA, 63% discontinued KEYTRUDA, and 71% had resolution.

Immune-Mediated Colitis

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated colitis, which may present with diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus infection/reactivation has been reported in patients with corticosteroid-refractory immune-mediated colitis. In cases of corticosteroid-refractory colitis, consider repeating infectious workup to exclude alternative etiologies. Immune-mediated colitis occurred in 1.7% (48/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (1.1%), and Grade 2 (0.4%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 69% (33/48); additional immunosuppressant therapy was required in 4.2% of patients. Colitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.5% (15) and withholding in 0.5% (13) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 23% had recurrence. Colitis resolved in 85% of the 48 patients.

Hepatotoxicity and Immune-Mediated Hepatitis

KEYTRUDA AS A SINGLE AGENT
    • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in 0.7% (19/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.4%), and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 68% (13/19) of patients; additional immunosuppressant therapy was required in 11% of patients. Hepatitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.2% (6) and withholding in 0.3% (9) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, none had recurrence. Hepatitis resolved in 79% of the 19 patients.
KEYTRUDA WITH AXITINIB
    • KEYTRUDA in combination with axitinib can cause hepatic toxicity. Monitor liver enzymes before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment. Consider monitoring more frequently as compared to when the drugs are administered as single agents. For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt KEYTRUDA and axitinib, and consider administering corticosteroids as needed. With the combination of KEYTRUDA and axitinib, Grades 3 and 4 increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (20%) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (13%) were seen at a higher frequency compared to KEYTRUDA alone. Fifty-nine percent of the patients with increased ALT received systemic corticosteroids. In patients with ALT ≥3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) (Grades 2–4, n=116), ALT resolved to Grades 0–1 in 94%. Among the 92 patients who were rechallenged with either KEYTRUDA (n=3) or axitinib (n=34) administered as a single agent or with both (n=55), recurrence of ALT ≥3 times ULN was observed in 1 patient receiving KEYTRUDA, 16 patients receiving axitinib, and 24 patients receiving both. All patients with a recurrence of ALT ≥3 ULN subsequently recovered from the event.

Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathies

ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY
    • KEYTRUDA can cause primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency. For Grade 2 or higher, initiate symptomatic treatment, including hormone replacement as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.8% (22/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.3%), and Grade 2 (0.3%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 77% (17/22) of patients; of these, the majority remained on systemic corticosteroids. Adrenal insufficiency led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) and withholding in 0.3% (8) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.
HYPOPHYSITIS
    • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated hypophysitis. Hypophysitis can present with acute symptoms associated with mass effect such as headache, photophobia, or visual field defects. Hypophysitis can cause hypopituitarism. Initiate hormone replacement as indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Hypophysitis occurred in 0.6% (17/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.3%), and Grade 2 (0.2%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 94% (16/17) of patients; of these, the majority remained on systemic corticosteroids. Hypophysitis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.1% (4) and withholding in 0.3% (7) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.
THYROID DISORDERS
    • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated thyroid disorders. Thyroiditis can present with or without endocrinopathy. Hypothyroidism can follow hyperthyroidism. Initiate hormone replacement for hypothyroidism or institute medical management of hyperthyroidism as clinically indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Thyroiditis occurred in 0.6% (16/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 2 (0.3%). None discontinued, but KEYTRUDA was withheld in <0.1% (1) of patients.
    • Hyperthyroidism occurred in 3.4% (96/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (0.1%) and Grade 2 (0.8%). It led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (2) and withholding in 0.3% (7) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement. Hypothyroidism occurred in 8% (237/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (0.1%) and Grade 2 (6.2%). It led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) and withholding in 0.5% (14) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement. The majority of patients with hypothyroidism required long-term thyroid hormone replacement. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 1185 patients with HNSCC, occurring in 16% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent or in combination with platinum and FU, including Grade 3 (0.3%) hypothyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 389 adult patients with cHL (17%) receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, including Grade 1 (6.2%) and Grade 2 (10.8%) hypothyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hyperthyroidism was higher in 580 patients with resected NSCLC, occurring in 11% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent as adjuvant treatment, including Grade 3 (0.2%) hyperthyroidism. The incidence of new or worsening hypothyroidism was higher in 580 patients with resected NSCLC, occurring in 22% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent as adjuvant treatment (KEYNOTE⁠-⁠091), including Grade 3 (0.3%) hypothyroidism.
TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS (DM), WHICH CAN PRESENT WITH DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS
    • Monitor patients for hyperglycemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Initiate treatment with insulin as clinically indicated. Withhold KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Type 1 DM occurred in 0.2% (6/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. It led to permanent discontinuation in <0.1% (1) and withholding of KEYTRUDA in <0.1% (1) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement.

Immune-Mediated Nephritis With Renal Dysfunction

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated nephritis. Immune-mediated nephritis occurred in 0.3% (9/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 4 (<0.1%), Grade 3 (0.1%), and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 89% (8/9) of patients. Nephritis led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA in 0.1% (3) and withholding in 0.1% (3) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, none had recurrence. Nephritis resolved in 56% of the 9 patients.

Immune-Mediated Dermatologic Adverse Reactions

  • KEYTRUDA can cause immune-mediated rash or dermatitis. Exfoliative dermatitis, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, has occurred with anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Topical emollients and/or topical corticosteroids may be adequate to treat mild to moderate nonexfoliative rashes. Withhold or permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA depending on severity. Immune-mediated dermatologic adverse reactions occurred in 1.4% (38/2799) of patients receiving KEYTRUDA, including Grade 3 (1%) and Grade 2 (0.1%) reactions. Systemic corticosteroids were required in 40% (15/38) of patients. These reactions led to permanent discontinuation in 0.1% (2) and withholding of KEYTRUDA in 0.6% (16) of patients. All patients who were withheld reinitiated KEYTRUDA after symptom improvement; of these, 6% had recurrence. The reactions resolved in 79% of the 38 patients.

Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions

  • The following clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of <1% (unless otherwise noted) in patients who received KEYTRUDA or were reported with the use of other anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Severe or fatal cases have been reported for some of these adverse reactions. Cardiac/Vascular: Myocarditis, pericarditis, vasculitis; Nervous System: Meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and demyelination, myasthenic syndrome/myasthenia gravis (including exacerbation), Guillain-Barré syndrome, nerve paresis, autoimmune neuropathy; Ocular: Uveitis, iritis and other ocular inflammatory toxicities can occur. Some cases can be associated with retinal detachment. Various grades of visual impairment, including blindness, can occur. If uveitis occurs in combination with other immune-mediated adverse reactions, consider a Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like syndrome, as this may require treatment with systemic steroids to reduce the risk of permanent vision loss; Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, to include increases in serum amylase and lipase levels, gastritis, duodenitis; Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: Myositis/polymyositis, rhabdomyolysis (and associated sequelae, including renal failure), arthritis (1.5%), polymyalgia rheumatica; Endocrine: Hypoparathyroidism; Hematologic/Immune: Hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi lymphadenitis), sarcoidosis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, solid organ transplant rejection, other transplant (including corneal graft) rejection.

Infusion-Related Reactions

  • KEYTRUDA can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions, including hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, which have been reported in 0.2% of 2799 patients receiving KEYTRUDA. Monitor for signs and symptoms of infusion-related reactions. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for Grade 1 or Grade 2 reactions. For Grade 3 or Grade 4 reactions, stop infusion and permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA.

Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

  • Fatal and other serious complications can occur in patients who receive allogeneic HSCT before or after anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments. Transplant-related complications include hyperacute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute and chronic GVHD, hepatic veno-occlusive disease after reduced intensity conditioning, and steroid-requiring febrile syndrome (without an identified infectious cause). These complications may occur despite intervening therapy between anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments and allogeneic HSCT. Follow patients closely for evidence of these complications and intervene promptly. Consider the benefit vs risks of using anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatments prior to or after an allogeneic HSCT.

Increased Mortality in Patients With Multiple Myeloma

  • In trials in patients with multiple myeloma, the addition of KEYTRUDA to a thalidomide analogue plus dexamethasone resulted in increased mortality. Treatment of these patients with an anti–PD⁠-⁠1/PD⁠-⁠L1 treatment in this combination is not recommended outside of controlled trials.

Embryofetal Toxicity

  • Based on its mechanism of action, KEYTRUDA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise women of this potential risk. In females of reproductive potential, verify pregnancy status prior to initiating KEYTRUDA and advise them to use effective contraception during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Adverse Reactions

  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠006, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 9% of 555 patients with advanced melanoma; adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation in more than one patient were colitis (1.4%), autoimmune hepatitis (0.7%), allergic reaction (0.4%), polyneuropathy (0.4%), and cardiac failure (0.4%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA were fatigue (28%), diarrhea (26%), rash (24%), and nausea (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent to patients with stage III melanoma, KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 509 patients; the most common (≥1%) were pneumonitis (1.4%), colitis (1.2%), and diarrhea (1%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA. The most common adverse reaction (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA was diarrhea (28%). In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠716, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent to patients with stage IIB or IIC melanoma, adverse reactions occurring in patients with stage IIB or IIC melanoma were similar to those occurring in 1011 patients with stage III melanoma from KEYNOTE⁠-⁠054.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠189, when KEYTRUDA was administered with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy in metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 20% of 405 patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis (3%) and acute kidney injury (2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA were nausea (56%), fatigue (56%), constipation (35%), diarrhea (31%), decreased appetite (28%), rash (25%), vomiting (24%), cough (21%), dyspnea (21%), and pyrexia (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠407, when KEYTRUDA was administered with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or paclitaxel protein‑bound in metastatic squamous NSCLC, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of 101 patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection. Adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠407 were similar to those observed in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠189 with the exception that increased incidences of alopecia (47% vs 36%) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 25%) were observed in the KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy arm compared to the placebo and chemotherapy arm in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠407.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠042, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 19% of 636 patients with advanced NSCLC; the most common were pneumonitis (3%), death due to unknown cause (1.6%), and pneumonia (1.4%). The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were pneumonia (7%), pneumonitis (3.9%), pulmonary embolism (2.4%), and pleural effusion (2.2%). The most common adverse reaction (≥20%) was fatigue (25%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠010, KEYTRUDA monotherapy was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 682 patients with metastatic NSCLC; the most common was pneumonitis (1.8%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were decreased appetite (25%), fatigue (25%), dyspnea (23%), and nausea (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠671, adverse reactions occurring in patients with resectable NSCLC receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with platinum-containing chemotherapy, given as neoadjuvant treatment and continued as single-agent adjuvant treatment, were generally similar to those occurring in patients in other clinical trials across tumor types receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy.
  • The most common adverse reactions (reported in ≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were fatigue/asthenia, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, cough, dyspnea, pyrexia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, mucosal inflammation, stomatitis, headache, weight loss, abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, insomnia, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, urinary tract infection, and hypothyroidism.
  • In the neoadjuvant phase of KEYNOTE⁠-⁠671, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with platinum-containing chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment, serious adverse reactions occurred in 34% of 396 patients. The most frequent (≥2%) serious adverse reactions were pneumonia (4.8%), venous thromboembolism (3.3%), and anemia (2%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.3% of patients, including death due to unknown cause (0.8%), sepsis (0.3%), and immune-mediated lung disease (0.3%). Permanent discontinuation of any study drug due to an adverse reaction occurred in 18% of patients who received KEYTRUDA in combination with platinum-containing chemotherapy; the most frequent adverse reactions (≥1%) that led to permanent discontinuation of any study drug were acute kidney injury (1.8%), interstitial lung disease (1.8%), anemia (1.5%), neutropenia (1.5%), and pneumonia (1.3%).
  • Of the KEYTRUDA-treated patients who received neoadjuvant treatment, 6% of 396 patients did not receive surgery due to adverse reactions. The most frequent (≥1%) adverse reaction that led to cancellation of surgery in the KEYTRUDA arm was interstitial lung disease (1%).
  • In the adjuvant phase of KEYNOTE⁠-⁠671, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent as adjuvant treatment, serious adverse reactions occurred in 14% of 290 patients. The most frequent serious adverse reaction was pneumonia (3.4%). One fatal adverse reaction of pulmonary hemorrhage occurred. Permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA due to an adverse reaction occurred in 12% of patients who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent, given as adjuvant treatment; the most frequent adverse reactions (≥1%) that led to permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were diarrhea (1.7%), interstitial lung disease (1.4%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (1%), and musculoskeletal pain (1%).
  • Adverse reactions observed in KEYNOTE⁠-⁠091 were generally similar to those occurring in other patients with NSCLC receiving KEYTRUDA as a single agent, with the exception of hypothyroidism (22%), hyperthyroidism (11%), and pneumonitis (7%). Two fatal adverse reactions of myocarditis occurred.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠048, KEYTRUDA monotherapy was discontinued due to adverse events in 12% of 300 patients with HNSCC; the most common adverse reactions leading to permanent discontinuation were sepsis (1.7%) and pneumonia (1.3%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (33%), constipation (20%), and rash (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠048, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin) and FU chemotherapy, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 16% of 276 patients with HNSCC. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonia (2.5%), pneumonitis (1.8%), and septic shock (1.4%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were nausea (51%), fatigue (49%), constipation (37%), vomiting (32%), mucosal inflammation (31%), diarrhea (29%), decreased appetite (29%), stomatitis (26%), and cough (22%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠012, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 17% of 192 patients with HNSCC. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 45% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 2% of patients were pneumonia, dyspnea, confusional state, vomiting, pleural effusion, and respiratory failure. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue, decreased appetite, and dyspnea. Adverse reactions occurring in patients with HNSCC were generally similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy, with the exception of increased incidences of facial edema and new or worsening hypothyroidism.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠204, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 14% of 148 patients with cHL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; those ≥1% were pneumonitis, pneumonia, pyrexia, myocarditis, acute kidney injury, febrile neutropenia, and sepsis. Three patients died from causes other than disease progression: 2 from complications after allogeneic HSCT and 1 from unknown cause. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were upper respiratory tract infection (41%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), diarrhea (22%), and pyrexia, fatigue, rash, and cough (20% each).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠087, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 5% of 210 patients with cHL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 16% of patients; those ≥1% were pneumonia, pneumonitis, pyrexia, dyspnea, GVHD, and herpes zoster. Two patients died from causes other than disease progression: 1 from GVHD after subsequent allogeneic HSCT and 1 from septic shock. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (26%), pyrexia (24%), cough (24%), musculoskeletal pain (21%), diarrhea (20%), and rash (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠170, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 53 patients with PMBCL. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 26% of patients and included arrhythmia (4%), cardiac tamponade (2%), myocardial infarction (2%), pericardial effusion (2%), and pericarditis (2%). Six (11%) patients died within 30 days of start of treatment. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were musculoskeletal pain (30%), upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia (28% each), cough (26%), fatigue (23%), and dyspnea (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠A39, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with enfortumab vedotin to patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (n=440), fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.9% of patients, including acute respiratory failure (0.7%), pneumonia (0.5%), and pneumonitis/ILD (0.2%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 50% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin; the serious adverse reactions in ≥2% of patients were rash (6%), acute kidney injury (5%), pneumonitis/ILD (4.5%), urinary tract infection (3.6%), diarrhea (3.2%), pneumonia (2.3%), pyrexia (2%), and hyperglycemia (2%). Permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA occurred in 27% of patients. The most common adverse reactions (≥2%) resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA were pneumonitis/ILD (4.8%) and rash (3.4%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) occurring in patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin were rash (68%), peripheral neuropathy (67%), fatigue (51%), pruritus (41%), diarrhea (38%), alopecia (35%), weight loss (33%), decreased appetite (33%), nausea (26%), constipation (26%), dry eye (24%), dysgeusia (21%), and urinary tract infection (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠052, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 11% of 370 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 42% of patients; those ≥2% were urinary tract infection, hematuria, acute kidney injury, pneumonia, and urosepsis. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (38%), musculoskeletal pain (24%), decreased appetite (22%), constipation (21%), rash (21%), and diarrhea (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠045, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 266 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA was pneumonitis (1.9%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 39% of KEYTRUDA-treated patients; those ≥2% were urinary tract infection, pneumonia, anemia, and pneumonitis. The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients who received KEYTRUDA were fatigue (38%), musculoskeletal pain (32%), pruritus (23%), decreased appetite (21%), nausea (21%), and rash (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠057, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 11% of 148 patients with high-risk NMIBC. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA was pneumonitis (1.4%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 28% of patients; those ≥2% were pneumonia (3%), cardiac ischemia (2%), colitis (2%), pulmonary embolism (2%), sepsis (2%), and urinary tract infection (2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (29%), diarrhea (24%), and rash (24%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR CRC were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠158 and KEYNOTE⁠-⁠164, adverse reactions occurring in patients with MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR cancer were similar to those occurring in patients with other solid tumors who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠859, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy, serious adverse reactions occurred in 45% of 785 patients. Serious adverse reactions in >2% of patients included pneumonia (4.1%), diarrhea (3.9%), hemorrhage (3.9%), and vomiting (2.4%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 8% of patients who received KEYTRUDA, including infection (2.3%) and thromboembolism (1.3%). KEYTRUDA was permanently discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA (≥1%) were infections (1.8%) and diarrhea (1.0%). The most common adverse reactions (reported in ≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were peripheral neuropathy (47%), nausea (46%), fatigue (40%), diarrhea (36%), vomiting (34%), decreased appetite (29%), abdominal pain (26%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (25%), constipation (22%), and weight loss (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠590, when KEYTRUDA was administered with cisplatin and fluorouracil to patients with metastatic or locally advanced esophageal or GEJ (tumors with epicenter 1 to 5 centimeters above the GEJ) carcinoma who were not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 15% of 370 patients. The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA (≥1%) were pneumonitis (1.6%), acute kidney injury (1.1%), and pneumonia (1.1%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were nausea (67%), fatigue (57%), decreased appetite (44%), constipation (40%), diarrhea (36%), vomiting (34%), stomatitis (27%), and weight loss (24%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with esophageal cancer who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠A18, when KEYTRUDA was administered with CRT (cisplatin plus external beam radiation therapy [EBRT] followed by brachytherapy [BT]) to patients with FIGO 2014 Stage III-IVA cervical cancer, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 1.4% of 292 patients, including 1 case each (0.3%) of large intestinal perforation, urosepsis, sepsis, and vaginal hemorrhage. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients; those ≥1% included urinary tract infection (2.7%), urosepsis (1.4%), and sepsis (1%). KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 7% of patients. The most common adverse reaction (≥1%) resulting in permanent discontinuation was diarrhea (1%). For patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with CRT, the most common adverse reactions (≥10%) were nausea (56%), diarrhea (50%), vomiting (33%), urinary tract infection (32%), fatigue (26%), hypothyroidism (20%), constipation (18%), decreased appetite and weight loss (17% each), abdominal pain and pyrexia (12% each), hyperthyroidism, dysuria, rash (11% each), and pelvic pain (10%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠826, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin or paclitaxel and carboplatin, with or without bevacizumab (n=307), to patients with persistent, recurrent, or first-line metastatic cervical cancer regardless of tumor PD⁠-⁠L1 expression who had not been treated with chemotherapy except when used concurrently as a radio-sensitizing agent, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 4.6% of patients, including 3 cases of hemorrhage, 2 cases each of sepsis and due to unknown causes, and 1 case each of acute myocardial infarction, autoimmune encephalitis, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, femur fracture with perioperative pulmonary embolus, intestinal perforation, and pelvic infection. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 50% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab; those ≥3% were febrile neutropenia (6.8%), urinary tract infection (5.2%), anemia (4.6%), and acute kidney injury and sepsis (3.3% each).
  • KEYTRUDA was discontinued in 15% of patients due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation (≥1%) was colitis (1%).
  • For patients treated with KEYTRUDA, chemotherapy, and bevacizumab (n=196), the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were peripheral neuropathy (62%), alopecia (58%), anemia (55%), fatigue/asthenia (53%), nausea and neutropenia (41% each), diarrhea (39%), hypertension and thrombocytopenia (35% each), constipation and arthralgia (31% each), vomiting (30%), urinary tract infection (27%), rash (26%), leukopenia (24%), hypothyroidism (22%), and decreased appetite (21%).
  • For patients treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab, the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were peripheral neuropathy (58%), alopecia (56%), fatigue (47%), nausea (40%), diarrhea (36%), constipation (28%), arthralgia (27%), vomiting (26%), hypertension and urinary tract infection (24% each), and rash (22%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠158, KEYTRUDA was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 8% of 98 patients with previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 39% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; the most frequent included anemia (7%), fistula, hemorrhage, and infections [except urinary tract infections] (4.1% each). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue (43%), musculoskeletal pain (27%), diarrhea (23%), pain and abdominal pain (22% each), and decreased appetite (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠966, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin, KEYTRUDA was discontinued for adverse reactions in 15% of 529 patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic biliary tract cancer. The most common adverse reaction resulting in permanent discontinuation of KEYTRUDA (≥1%) was pneumonitis (1.3%). Adverse reactions leading to the interruption of KEYTRUDA occurred in 55% of patients. The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to interruption of KEYTRUDA (≥2%) were decreased neutrophil count (18%), decreased platelet count (10%), anemia (6%), decreased white blood cell count (4%), pyrexia (3.8%), fatigue (3.0%), cholangitis (2.8%), increased ALT (2.6%), increased AST (2.5%), and biliary obstruction (2.3%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠017 and KEYNOTE⁠-⁠913, adverse reactions occurring in patients with MCC (n=105) were generally similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠426, when KEYTRUDA was administered in combination with axitinib, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.3% of 429 patients. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 40% of patients, the most frequent (≥1%) were hepatotoxicity (7%), diarrhea (4.2%), acute kidney injury (2.3%), dehydration (1%), and pneumonitis (1%). Permanent discontinuation due to an adverse reaction occurred in 31% of patients; KEYTRUDA only (13%), axitinib only (13%), and the combination (8%); the most common were hepatotoxicity (13%), diarrhea/colitis (1.9%), acute kidney injury (1.6%), and cerebrovascular accident (1.2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were diarrhea (56%), fatigue/asthenia (52%), hypertension (48%), hepatotoxicity (39%), hypothyroidism (35%), decreased appetite (30%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (28%), nausea (28%), stomatitis/mucosal inflammation (27%), dysphonia (25%), rash (25%), cough (21%), and constipation (21%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠564, when KEYTRUDA was administered as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of renal cell carcinoma, serious adverse reactions occurred in 20% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; the serious adverse reactions (≥1%) were acute kidney injury, adrenal insufficiency, pneumonia, colitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis (1% each). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 0.2% including 1 case of pneumonia. Discontinuation of KEYTRUDA due to adverse reactions occurred in 21% of 488 patients; the most common (≥1%) were increased ALT (1.6%), colitis (1%), and adrenal insufficiency (1%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were musculoskeletal pain (41%), fatigue (40%), rash (30%), diarrhea (27%), pruritus (23%), and hypothyroidism (21%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with MSI⁠-⁠H or dMMR endometrial carcinoma who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a single agent.
  • Adverse reactions occurring in patients with recurrent or metastatic cSCC or locally advanced cSCC were similar to those occurring in patients with melanoma or NSCLC who received KEYTRUDA as a monotherapy.
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠522, when KEYTRUDA was administered with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin or epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) followed by surgery and continued adjuvant treatment with KEYTRUDA as a single agent (n=778) to patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated, high-risk early-stage TNBC, fatal adverse reactions occurred in 0.9% of patients, including 1 each of adrenal crisis, autoimmune encephalitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, pneumonitis, pulmonary embolism, and sepsis in association with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and myocardial infarction. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 44% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA; those ≥2% were febrile neutropenia (15%), pyrexia (3.7%), anemia (2.6%), and neutropenia (2.2%). KEYTRUDA was discontinued in 20% of patients due to adverse reactions. The most common reactions (≥1%) resulting in permanent discontinuation were increased ALT (2.7%), increased AST (1.5%), and rash (1%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA were fatigue (70%), nausea (67%), alopecia (61%), rash (52%), constipation (42%), diarrhea and peripheral neuropathy (41% each), stomatitis (34%), vomiting (31%), headache (30%), arthralgia (29%), pyrexia (28%), cough (26%), abdominal pain (24%), decreased appetite (23%), insomnia (21%), and myalgia (20%).
  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠355, when KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy (paclitaxel, paclitaxel protein⁠-⁠bound, or gemcitabine and carboplatin) were administered to patients with locally recurrent unresectable or metastatic TNBC who had not been previously treated with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (n=596), fatal adverse reactions occurred in 2.5% of patients, including cardio-respiratory arrest (0.7%) and septic shock (0.3%). Serious adverse reactions occurred in 30% of patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy; the serious reactions in ≥2% were pneumonia (2.9%), anemia (2.2%), and thrombocytopenia (2%). KEYTRUDA was discontinued in 11% of patients due to adverse reactions. The most common reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation (≥1%) were increased ALT (2.2%), increased AST (1.5%), and pneumonitis (1.2%). The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients receiving KEYTRUDA in combination with chemotherapy were fatigue (48%), nausea (44%), alopecia (34%), diarrhea and constipation (28% each), vomiting and rash (26% each), cough (23%), decreased appetite (21%), and headache (20%).

Lactation

  • Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed children, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.

Pediatric Use

  • In KEYNOTE⁠-⁠051, 173 pediatric patients (65 pediatric patients aged 6 months to younger than 12 years and 108 pediatric patients aged 12 years to 17 years) were administered KEYTRUDA 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The median duration of exposure was 2.1 months (range: 1 day to 25 months).
  • Adverse reactions that occurred at a ≥10% higher rate in pediatric patients when compared to adults were pyrexia (33%), leukopenia (31%), vomiting (29%), neutropenia (28%), headache (25%), abdominal pain (23%), thrombocytopenia (22%), Grade 3 anemia (17%), decreased lymphocyte count (13%), and decreased white blood cell count (11%).
Geriatric Use
  • Of the 564 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin, 44% (n=247) were 65-74 years and 26% (n=144) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years of age or older and younger patients. Patients 75 years of age or older treated with KEYTRUDA in combination with enfortumab vedotin experienced a higher incidence of fatal adverse reactions than younger patients. The incidence of fatal adverse reactions was 4% in patients younger than 75 and 7% in patients 75 years or older.
ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; BT = brachytherapy; BTC = biliary tract cancer; cHL = classical Hodgkin lymphoma; CRC = colorectal cancer; CRT = chemoradiotherapy; cSCC = cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma; dMMR = mismatch repair deficient; EBRT = external beam radiation therapy; FIGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; FU = fluorouracil; GEJ = gastroesophageal junction; HER2 = human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; HNSCC = head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; ILD = interstitial lung disease; MCC = Merkel cell carcinoma; MSI⁠-⁠H = microsatellite instability-high; NMIBC = non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; NSCLC = non–small cell lung cancer; PMBCL = primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma; TNBC = triple-negative breast cancer.